Thursday, October 13, 2005


Yalta is a town in the Crimea in southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea, that was the site of the Yalta Conference. It has about 77,100 inhabitants (2004).
Near Yalta is the Livadia Palace, the former summer palace of the Russian Imperial family, where the conference actually took place. Throughout the Soviet era it continued to be an important resort for the Soviet elite. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union it has, however, struggled economically.
Yalta is the setting for Anton Chekov's short story The Lady With the Lap Dog.
  1. Hotel OREANDA, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine - 4 star hotel at Black Sea. Online reservation, diving slide show, casino slide show, restaurant menu, map of Crimea, photographs of gym, swimming pools, and conference halls. Highest services for business and leisure.--   Regional: Europe: Ukraine: Republics: Crimea: Localities: Yalta   (6)

  2. Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine - Yalta, Ukraine - photos of city, including aerial views.--   Regional: Europe: Ukraine: Republics: Crimea: Localities: Yalta   (6)

  3. Yalta Viaggi - Offering tours, transfers and other services, with search engine, and sample itineraries.--   Regional: Europe: Italy: Travel and Tourism: Travel Services: Tour Operators   (1)

  4. Da Yalta alla fine del bipolarismo - Ipertesto storico sulla Guerra Fredda dalle origini agli anni '90. Protagonisti, cronologia, citazioni ed approfondimenti.--   World: Italiano: Società: Storia: Moderna e Contemporanea: 20° Secolo: Guerra Fredda   (1)

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop - Cell biology and instrumentation, UV radiation, nitric oxide and cell death in plants, for four days in Yalta, Ukraine.--   Science: Biology: Cell Biology: Meetings   (1)

  6. Casino Oreanda - Black Sea resort offering blackjack, roullette and stud poker. Yalta, Ukraine.--   Games: Gambling: Casinos: By Location: Europe   (1)

  7. Crimean Webcams - Monument to the scuttled ships, Ushakov square (Sevastopol), Alushta's Quay, Kerch and Yalta.--   Computers: Internet: On the Web: Webcams: Outdoors   (1)

  8. Diving Centre Oreanda - Located in Yalta, Crimea. Find information on PADI instruction, hotel particulars, and contact details.--   Recreation: Outdoors: Scuba Diving: Regional: Europe   (1)

  9. Karabyts, Ivan - (1945- ), Yalta, Ukraine. Picture, biography, and selected works, from Duma Music.--   Arts: Music: Composition: Composers: Contemporary: K   (1)

  10. Ялта - Информация для туристов и отдыхающих.--   World: Russian: Страны и регионы: Европа: Украина: Республики: Крым: Ялта   (5)

  11. Дайв-центр "Юнион-Крым" - Список локальных мест погружения, а также мест погружений, доступных при круизах и полнодневных поездках. Информация о дайв-центрах.--   World: Russian: Страны и регионы: Европа: Украина: Отдых и спорт: Подводный спорт   (1)

  12. Ukraine: Black Sea resort shows treasures to tourists - [CNN]--   News: Online Archives: 2003: November: Travel   (1)

  13. Yalta - Short description of Yalta and nearby regions--   Regional: Europe: Ukraine: Republics: Crimea: Localities: Yalta   (6)

  14. Сергей Сорокин о Ялте - Полезная информация, размещение, однодневные экскурсии, фотографии дворцов и гор в окрестностях Ялты--   World: Russian: Страны и регионы: Европа: Украина: Республики: Крым: Ялта   (5)

  15. Yalta - travel, excursions, accommodation - Pictures of Yalta, accommodation (holiday apartments, hotels, villas), excursions and tours (hiking, biking and climbing in the vicinity of Yalta)--   Regional: Europe: Ukraine: Republics: Crimea: Localities: Yalta   (6)


Sakha Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Саха́ (Яку́тия), Respublika Sakha (Yakutia); Yakut: Саха, Sakha) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). It is located in the Far Eastern Federal District.

Sakha stretches to the Henrietta Islands in the far north and is washed by the Arctic Ocean (Laptev and Eastern Siberian Seas). These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the northern hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9-10 months of the year. The Stanovoy Ridge borders Yakutia in the south, the upper reaches of the Olenyok River form the western border, and Chukotka forms the eastern border.
Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts. About 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which greatly influences the region's ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen and moss grow as great green carpets and are favorite pastures for reindeer. In the southern part of the tundra belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine and larch grow along the rivers. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north and, in the south, stands of fir and pine begin to appear. Taiga forests cover about 47% of Yakutia and almost 90% of this cover is larch.
Yakutia's greatest mountain range, the Verkhoyansk, runs parallel and east of the Lena River, forming a great arc that begins the Sea of Okhotsk and ends in the Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean). This great range has hundreds of small tributaries which flow into the Lena as it moves northward. The Cherky Range runs east of the Verkhoyansk and has the highest peak in Yakutia, Peak Pobeda (5,147 m). Even further east are the gold-rich Kolyma Mountains, which stretch all the way to Chukotka.
Administrative Division
Main article: Administrative division of Sakha
The Sakha arrived relatively recently in their current geographical area. They are heterogeneous of Turkic and Mongoloid origin. They absorbed the hunter-gatherer tribes (including the Chinyik) and after centuries of consolidation, began to call themselves 'Sakha'. However, the Malaty are still holding on.
The Evenki referred to the Sakha as "Yako" and this term was adopted by the Russians when they began arriving in the region in the early 17th century. Tygyn, 'prince' of the Khangalassky Yakuts, granted territory for Russian settlement. The Lenskiy Ostrog (Fort Lensky), the future city of Yakutsk, was founded by the Cossack, Pyotr Beketov, on September 25, 1632 is the date of the first stockade construction. In August, 1638, the Moscow Government formed a new administrative unit centred on Lenskiy Ostrog which cemented the town's ascendancy in the territory.
Russians established agriculture in the Lena Basin. The members of religious groups who were banished to Sakha in the second half of the 19th century religious groups who had been exiled to the region began to grow wheat, oats, and potatoes. The Fur trade established a cash economy. Industry and transport began to develop at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the Soviet period. This was also the beginning of geological prospecting, mining, and local lead production. The first steam-powered ships and barges arrived.
In 1922 former 'Yakolskaya land' was proclaimed the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Republic and in 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, it was recognised in Moscow as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) as an Internal Republic of the Russian Federation.
The Sakha Republic is well endowed with raw materials. The soil contains large reserves of oil, gas, coal, diamonds, gold and silver. Industry generates 43% of the gross national product stemming primarily from mineral exploitation. The diamond, gold and tin ore mining industries are the major focus of the economy. 99% of all Russian diamonds are mined in Sakha. The indigenous peoples are well-known as hunters, fishermen and reindeer herders.
Water transport ranks first for cargo turnover. There are six rivers and two sea ports, three shipping companies besides the Arctic Sea Shipping company. Air transport is the most important for transporting people. Airlines connect the Republic with most regions of Russia. Yakutsk airport has an international terminal. Two federal roads pass the Republic. They are Yakutsk-Bolshoi Niever and Yakutsk-Kolyma. The Berkakit-Aldan railroad is in operation at present. It links the Baikal-Amur railroad with the industrial centers in South Yakutia.
The republic has independence within the Russian Federation as an Independent Internal Republic of Russian Federation. The supreme legislative body of state authority in Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is a bicameral State Assembly known as the "IL Tumen". President of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is the head of the state. The government of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is the executive body of state authority.
The first President of Sakha was Mikhail E. Nikolaev.The current President of Sakha is Vyacheslav A. Shtyrov.The Chairman of the Parliament (Prime Minister) (?) is Aleksandr Akimov.
Official languages are Yakut, (also known as Sakha), spoken by approximately 25% of the population. The Yakut language is Turkic with Mongolian influence. There are also borrowings from Sakha’s Paleosiberian indigenous peoples.
Russian is spoken as a lingua franca by all ethnic groups.
See also: Yakut
  • Sakha is also known for its climate extremes, with Verkhoyansk Range being the coldest area in the northern hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere's ‘Cold Pole’ is at Oymyakon, where the temperatures have reached as low as -70°C in January, 1926.

  • "Lenin" was the most well known of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov’s revolutionary pseudonyms. He is believed to have created it to show his opposition to Georgi Plekhanov who used the pseudonym Volgin, after the Volga River. Ulyanov picked the Lena which is longer and flows in the opposite direction.

  • Sakha is the Largest subnational entity in the world.
External links
Great photos of the republic:
Official website:
In English:
  1. Yakut - Profile of the Yakut people, from NUPI - Centre for Russian Studies.--   Regional: Europe: Russia: Society and Culture: Ethnicity: Arctic and Siberian: Yakut   (5)

  2. Yakut - The Yakut people live in Siberia in the basin of the Middle Lena River and the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers.--   Science: Social Sciences: Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology: Ethnography   (1)

  3. Sakha - Yakut Language - Yakut language materials with Russian translations at Katerina Potapova's web-site, Bonn University.--   Science: Social Sciences: Linguistics: Languages: Natural: Altaic: Turkic: Northeastern Turkic Languages   (3)

  4. Holy Trees of the Yakut People - Brief description of tree symbolism among the Yakut people of Siberia.--   Society: Folklore: Literature: Tales: Animals and Plants: Trees   (1)

  5. Yakut Sigorta ve Reasürans Brokerliği A.Ş. - Top/World/Türkçe/Ekonomi_ve_İş_Dünyası/Sigorta/Sigorta_Brokerleri--   World: Türkçe: Ekonomi ve İş Dünyası: Sigorta: Sigorta Brokerleri   (1)

  6. Christianity and Shamanism: First International Consultation - Introduction and seven chapters about shamanism and Christianity. Focuses on the relation between Christian doctrine and shamanism in Korean and Yakut cultures.--   Society: Religion and Spirituality: Shamanism: Korean   (1)

  7. Yakut Sigorta - Sigorta acentesinin sitesinde tarihçe, hizmetler, ürünler ve referanslar hakkında bilgiler, formlar yer almaktadır.--   World: Türkçe: Bölgesel: Orta Doğu: Türkiye: Bölgeler: Marmara: İstanbul: Ekonomi ve İş Dünyası: Finansal Hizmetler   (1)

  8. Minority Languages of Russia on the Net - Fonts, codepages, keyboard drivers and other utilities for the following languages in and around the Russian Federation: Altai, Bashkir, Buryat, Chechen, Chukchi, Chuvash, Itelmen, Kalmyk, Karelian, Khakas, Khanty, Komi, Koryak, Mansi, Mari, Nenets, Nivkh, Saami, Selkup, Tatar, Tuvan, Udmurt, Vepsian and Yakut.--   Computers: Software: Globalization: Character Encoding: Cyrillic   (1)

  9. Baghdad under the Abbasids - A description of the city under Abbasid rule by Yakut (c. 1000 CE); from the Medieval Sourcebook.--   Society: Religion and Spirituality: Islam: History: Dynasties and Empires: Abbasid   (1)

  10. Segmentary Hierarchy of Identity: The Case of Yakuts and Evens in Northern Yakutia - Article by Shiro Sasaki, discussing the ethnic identity and socio-cultural units of the Yakut and Even.--   Regional: Europe: Russia: Society and Culture: Ethnicity: Arctic and Siberian   (1)

  11. Creation Story Theatre - One-man shamanic performance of Byenai and Lena--the creation myth of the Yakut People of Siberia--and other stories from indigenous cultures. Contact information, video stills and performance description.--   Arts: Performing Arts: Theatre: Troupes and Companies: North America: United States: Colorado   (1)

  12. ATS Gold - Yakut, zümrüt, safir taşlarıyla süslenmiş altın takılar bulunuyor.--   World: Türkçe: Alışveriş: Mücevher   (1)

  13. Zen Pırlanta - Altın, tria, yakut, zümrüt, safir, elmas gibi kıymetli maden ve taşlardan takı imalatı ve tasarımı.--   World: Türkçe: Ekonomi ve İş Dünyası: Kuyumcular   (1)

  14. Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) - Profile of the Sakha (Yakut) Republic, from the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge.--   Regional: Europe: Russia: Society and Culture: Ethnicity: Arctic and Siberian: Yakut   (5)

  15. Eder Saas - Online journal ("Youth") in the Yakut language, covering current events, trends, and sport.--   Science: Social Sciences: Linguistics: Languages: Natural: Altaic: Turkic: Northeastern Turkic Languages   (3)

  16. Homepage of Brigitte Pakendorf - Researching the origin of the Yakut from a genetic and linguistic point of view; includes CV.--   Regional: Europe: Russia: Society and Culture: Ethnicity: Arctic and Siberian: Yakut   (5


Yakima is a the county seat of Yakima County located in central Washington. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 71,845. Yakima is situated in the Yakima Valley, which is noted for being one of the best apple producing areas in the world as well as a prime location for hops production. The name originates from the Yakama tribe, which has its reservation approximately 20 miles south of the city.
Suburbs include Selah, West Valley (debated -- see below), Moxee, Union Gap, Wapato, Toppenish, and White Swan.
The Yakama people were the first inhabitants of the Yakima Valley. In 1805 the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the valley and discovered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders. A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southeast of present day Yakima, in 1847. The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakama Indian War of 1855. The U.S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1886 near present day Toppenish as a response to the uprising. The Yakamas were defeated and forced onto the Yakama Indian Reservation.
Yakima County was created in 1865. North Yakima was officially incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886. The name was changed to Yakima in 1918.

Yakima is located at 46°35'48" North, 120°31'47" West (46.596728, -120.529657)1.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 53.4 km² (20.6 mi²). 52.1 km² (20.1 mi²) of it is land and 1.2 km² (0.5 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 2.33% water.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 71,845 people, 26,498 households, and 16,826 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,378.0/km² (3,569.9/mi²). There are 28,643 housing units at an average density of 549.4/km² (1,423.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 68.77% White, 1.99% African American, 2.00% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 21.97% from other races, and 3.92% from two or more races. 33.70% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 26,498 households out of which 34.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% are married couples living together, 14.2% have a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% are non-families. 30.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 14.0% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.63 and the average family size is 3.29.
In the city the population is spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $29,475, and the median income for a family is $34,798. Males have a median income of $29,647 versus $23,629 for females. The per capita income for the city is $15,920. 22.4% of the population and 17.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 32.3% of those under the age of 18 and 12.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Yakima is a minor-league level sports city that is home to the Yakima Bears baseball team of the short season class A Northwest League and the Yakima Sun Kings of the Continental Basketball Association.
Notable roads
Interstate 82 is the primary way of reaching Yakima, but U.S. Highway 12 uses the city as a terminus. U.S. Highway 97 joins I-82 at Yakima for approximately 40 miles. Washington State Route 24 terminates at Yakima and is the primary means of reaching Moxee and many of the area's agriculturial areas. Washington State Route 821 terminates at Yakima and is referred to locally as "Canyon Road" because it passes through the Yakima River canyon. It is an alternate route to Ellensburg that bypasses the I-82 summit of Manastash Ridge.
Like many cities, Yakima has developed over the past century because of agriculture. The Yakima Valley has many fruit crops, including apples, peaches, pears, cherries, melons and a variety of vegetables like peppers, corn, beans etc. The economy has been very dependent upon agriculture, with very few other industrial enterprises. Because of a lack of other business enterprises and a large portion of the county being government-owned (Yakima Firing Center; Yakama Nation; DNR and BLM land) the tax base is small and the needs large. Many of the city's earliest and latest residents have come to the Valley out of economic necessity and to participate in the picking, processing, marketing and support services for the agricultural economy. (The latest agricultural product to gain some popularity is grapes and wine production.) A large influx of Spanish speaking people who come from impoverished backgrounds has added pressure to social services and schools and demands for more use of the Spanish language. Earlier immigrants were more likely to adopt English as their primary language upon arrival to the Valley.
Like many metropolitan areas, Yakima’s downtown has been decimated by consumers finding other outlets in which to shop, forcing retailers to leave the downtown area. In early 2004, the Yakima Mall ceased all operations and closed as it’s last retailer moved out. Many residents are shopping in connected town of Union Gap due to stragegic planning by Union Gap leaders, lower prices, ease of parking in the area, and a booming economy. A challenge for the city of Yakima is to once again attract residents who care about the city itself. Promoting the idea of local government 'buying into' downtown Yakima might help, as would school, college, and other government investments in the downtown area. Like other metropolitan areas around the country, the process must begin with visionary leadership and tax breaks for those who would choose invest in infrastructure downtown. So far, there has been very little commitment to the task. With a city manager close to retirement not much vision or change is expected. Also downtown mall owner is considered by many not helpful by those trying to build a positive future for the downtown area.
Most of West Valley is in an unincorporated part of the county, but threats of independent incorporation have led the city to annex major parts of the area. This has led to severe ill-feelings among some of the area’s residents. Some of the West Valley residents like the city services.
The Wal*Mart corporation is looking to install a second store in the West Valley area. This is a hotly discussed issue, with comments ranging from “It provides more choice for customers” and “The area needs the jobs the store will create” to “Wal*Mart is notorious for not treating its workers well”, “The store will create unneeded traffic congestion”, and “It will harm already struggling local businesses”. As a result, the company’s newly-acquired land (formerly part of the Congdon Orchards, a major agricultural facility in the area) has seen water rights and environmental challenges. No one has come up with an option to purchase the land so as to prevent the Wal-Mart development.
Interesting facts
Approaching the city from the east on Interstate 82, one can see a sign which says "Yakima: The Palm Springs of Washington" prominently displayed. This sign is privately owned, thus no governmental agency can take action against it. The sign is a source of both hilarity and scorn within the area . The owner of course knows of the sign’s issues, but insists he likes the sign and refuses to remove it.
External links
Official City Website ( Herald-Republic, the area's principal newspaper. ( Valley Community College, the area's prominent institution of higher learning. ( Valley Regional Library (hosts local information in printed form) ( Valley Museum ( of the area from the library and local museum presented online. (
  1. Virtual Valley - Information on the region, its agriculture, organizations, government, schools, and events, including a telephone directory and local news.--   Regional: North America: United States: Washington: Localities: Y: Yakima   (79)

  2. Yakima County - Official website of Yakima County in Washington State--   Regional: North America: United States: Washington: Counties: Yakima   (18)

  3. Greater Yakima Chamber of Commerce - With local weather and other city information.--   Regional: North America: United States: Washington: Localities: Y: Yakima   (79)

  4. Yakima Valley Museum - The Yakima Valley Museum offers historical displays focusing on the Yakima Valley, its natural history, Native American culture, early pioneer life, and the roots and development of the Valley's fruit industry.--   Regional: North America: United States: Washington: Counties: Yakima   (18)

  5. Yakima Nation Economic Development Office - Portal to all programs: agriculture, infrastructure, tourism and RV park, human resources, cultural center, casino, and forestry products. Strategic goals and contact information.--   Society: Ethnicity: The Americas: Indigenous: Native Americans: Tribes, Nations and Bands: Y: Yakima   (6)

  6. Yakima Bears - Official site of the Yakima, Washington Bears minor league baseball team. Includes news, history, statistics, merchandise and ticket information.--   Sports: Baseball: Minor League: Leagues: A: Northwest League: Yakima   (1)

  7. Yakima River Winery - Husband and wife team, John and Louise Rauner, specialize red wines and port. Contains technical data and descriptions of wines, an award list, and a profile of the owners. Located in Prosser.--   Recreation: Food: Drink: Wine: United States: Washington: Columbia Valley: Yakima Valley   (1)

  8. Yakima Seventh-day Adventist Church - Christian school, pathfinders, community services, food and clothing bank. Yakima, WA.--   Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Seventh-day Adventists: Churches: United States: Washington   (4)

  9. KIMA-TV (CBS, Yakima) - CBS affiliate TV station based in Yakima, WA.--   Regional: North America: United States: Washington: News and Media: Television   (3)

  10. Yakima Valley Credit Union - Yakima.--   Business: Financial Services: Banking Services: Credit Unions: Regional: United States: Washington   (2)

  11. Yakima Sun Kings - Latest news, players, schedule, staff and tickets.--   Sports: Basketball: Professional: CBA   (1)

  12. Yakima Sleep Center - A nationally accredited center for the treatment of sleep disorders. Find info on the lab, tests and procedures and insurance coverage.--   Health: Conditions and Diseases: Sleep Disorders: Centers   (1)

  13. Yakima - Manufactures rack products for vehicles.--   Business: Automotive: Parts and Accessories: Exterior   (1)

  14. Yakima Herald-Republic - Local news, sports, weather, classifieds and real estate listings.--   News: Newspapers: Regional: United States: Washington   (1)

  15. Dowty Aerospace Yakima - Supplier of aerospace actuator, fuses, and other high energy devices.--   Business: Aerospace and Defense: Aeronautical: Aircraft and Components: Components and Parts   (1)

  16. Cognitive Pattern of the Yakima Indian Students - Study of four groups of Indian children suggests that they may learn better spatially and sequentially than by traditional verbal methods.--   Reference: Education: Methods and Theories: Learning Theories: Learning Styles   (1)

  17. Yakima Valley Soccer Referee Association - Scheduling, laws, forms, events, and player associations.--   Sports: Soccer: CONCACAF: United States: Officiating   (1)

  18. Live Yakima Police and Fire Scanner Broadcasts - Live streaming audio feed of Police and Fire emergency service scanner in the Yakima, Washington area.--   Recreation: Radio: Scanning: Regional: United States   (1)

  19. Yakima Valley Community College - Located in Yakima, WA.--   Reference: Education: Colleges and Universities: North America: United States: Washington: Two-Year Colleges   (2)

  20. Yakima Valley Museum - Offers displays focusing on natural history, Native American culture, early pioneer life, and the roots and development of the Valley's fruit industry. Includes events, memberships, programs, hours, tours, and directions.--   Reference: Museums: History: North America: United States: Washington   (1)


The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south central Asia. The word yak refers to the male of the species; a female is a dri or nak.
Wild yak stand about two meters tall at the shoulder. Domestic yak are about half that height. Both types have long shaggy hair to insulate them from the cold. Wild yak can be either brown or black. Domesticated ones can also be white.
Domesticated yak are kept primarily for their milk (to make butter for lamps in Buddist monastries), meat and they are used as beasts of burden; transporting goods across mountain passes for local farmers and traders as well as in support of climbing and trekking expeditions. Often the pack animals are actually crossbreeds of the yak and Bos taurus (common domestic cattle). These are known in Tibetan as dzo or dzopkyo.
The yak grunts instead of mooing. <p>The wild yak is an endangered species.
  1. Animal Info - Wild Yak - Biology, ecology, habitat, and status of the yak, and information on its wild habitat, including biodiversity, ecosystems, population, and land use.--   Kids and Teens: School Time: Science: Living Things: Animals: Mammals: Yak   (2)

  2. McRoberts Game Farm - Offering a unique variety of exotic meats and exotic animals including yak, llamas, donkeys, buffalo, deer and camels. Located in western Nebraska, USA.--   Business: Agriculture and Forestry: Livestock   (7)

  3. Animal Info - Wild Yak - Biology, ecology, habitat, and status of the yak, and information on its wild habitat, including biodiversity, ecosystems, population, and land use.--   Science: Agriculture: Animals: Mammals: Cattle   (2)

  4. Silly Yak Shirt - Shirts that spread the word about Celiac disease with 100% gluten free items.--   Shopping: Clothing: Casual: T-Shirts   (2)

  5. The Bloated Yak - List of links to interesting, funny, and entertaining websites from around the Internet.--   Recreation: Humor: Directories   (1)

  6. The Daily Yak - Thoughts and adventures of a stay-at-home dad.--   Home: Family: Parenting: Fathers: Stay at Home Fathers: Weblogs   (2)

  7. Yak's Corner - Magazine for kids includes news, activities and games. USA.--   Kids and Teens: Entertainment: Magazines and E-zines   (1)

  8. Yak Aircraft and Parts - Provides Yak aircraft and Yak aircraft parts. Based in Wheeling, West Virginia, USA.--   Shopping: Vehicles: Aircraft   (2)

  9. Yak Networks - One-stop shop for ADSL and dial-up internet connections, site hosting, offsite backup and data storage, web development anti-spam and network services. Australia.--   Computers: Internet: Access Providers: DSL   (1)

  10. YAK Research - Skate wheels and bearings.--   Business: Consumer Goods and Services: Sporting Goods: Skates   (1)

  11. Rude Yak - Chicago-based Erick Rudiak writes and performs original songs in the tradition of The Bad Examples, The Rugburns, and Crowded House. Lyrics, gig dates, mailing list, and links.--   Arts: Music: Bands and Artists: R   (1)

  12. Yak Cheong Metal Industries - Malaysia manufacturer of steel office furniture such as card index cabinet, mobile file systems and vertical filing.--   Business: Consumer Goods and Services: Office Products: Furniture   (1)

  13. Bi-yak Guideboats - Builds double hulled biyak guideboats for whitewater or fishing, as it has an extreme low water draft.--   Business: Consumer Goods and Services: Boating: Boats   (1)

  14. Bi-Yak - Boat made with a double hull design and rowing seat. Photos, specifications and reviews. USA.--   Business: Consumer Goods and Services: Sporting Goods: Fishing: Float Tubes   (1)

  15. Yak and Yakman Cycle Tour - When the Yakman is off his beloved Yak he emails in stories and observations of his worldly travels.--   Sports: Cycling: Travel: Travelogues: Worldwide   (1)


Yahoo! Inc. (NASDAQ:YHOO ( is an American computer services company with a mission to "be the most essential global internet service for consumers and businesses". It operates one of the biggest Internet portals, a web directory and a host of other services including the popular Yahoo! Mail. It was founded by Stanford graduate students David Filo and Jerry Yang in January 1994 and incorporated in March 1995. The company is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. History Yahoo! started out as "Jerry's Guide to the World Wide Web" but eventually received a new moniker with the help of a dictionary. The name Yahoo is an acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle," but Filo and Yang insist they selected the name because they liked the general definition of a yahoo, as in Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift: "rude, unsophisticated, uncouth." Yahoo itself first resided on Yang's student workstation, "Akebono," while the software was lodged on Filo's computer, "Konishiki"—both named after legendary sumo wrestlers. The "yet another" phrasing goes back at least to the Unix utility yacc, whose name is an acronym for "yet another compiler compiler". Yahoo! had its initial public offering on April 12, 1996, selling 2.6 million shares at $13 each. As Yahoo!'s popularity has increased, so has the range of features it offers, making it a kind of one-stop shop for all the popular activities of the Internet. These now include: Yahoo! mail, a web-based e-mail service, an instant messaging client, a very popular mailing list service (Yahoo! Groups), online gaming and chat, various news and information portals, online shopping and auction facilities, and an online payment system (similar to PayPal) called Yahoo! Paydirect. Many of these are based at least in part on previously independent services, which Yahoo! has acquired - such as the popular GeoCities free web-hosting service, Rocketmail, and various competing mailing list providers such as eGroups. Many of these take-overs were controversial and unpopular with users of the existing services, as Yahoo often changed the relevant terms of service. An example of this would be their claiming intellectual property over content on their servers, which the old companies had not. Yahoo! has now begun making partnerships with telecommunications and Internet providers - such as BT in the UK, Rogers in Canada and SBC in the US - to create content-rich broadband services to rival those offered by AOL. The company offers a branded credit card, Yahoo! Visa, through a partnership with First USA. Beginning in late 2002, Yahoo! quietly began to bolster its search services by acquiring competing technologies. In December 2002, it acquired Inktomi, and in July 2003, it acquired Overture Services, Inc., and through it, search sites AltaVista and AlltheWeb. On February 18, 2004, Yahoo! dropped Google-powered results, returning to its own results after a long time. Important events Please note that this list is merely partial.
  • 1995: Ziff Davis Inc. launches the magazine Yahoo! Internet Life, initially as ZD Internet Life. The magazine was meant to accompany and complement the web site.
  • February 7 2000: brought to a halt for a few hours as it was being the victim of a distributed denial of service attack (DDoS). [1] ( [2] ( On the next day, its shares rose about $16, or 4.5 percent as the failure was blamed on hackers rather than on an internal glitch, unlike what happened to eBay earlier.
  • December 2002: Yahoo! Inc. starts acquisition of Inktomi Web search engine
  • July 2003, Acquires Overture Services, Inc.
  • January 19 2004: Yahoo! Inc. announces the formation of Yahoo! Research Labs, a research organization focusing on the invention of new technologies and solutions for Yahoo. Yahoo's Head and Principal Scientist, Dr. Gary William Flake, leads the new organization.
  • February 19 2004: Yahoo dropped Google-powered results, returning to its own results after a long time.
  • March 2004: Yahoo launches its own search engine technology.
  • March 1 2004: Yahoo announces (as cited in the New York Times article listed in the "References" section) that it will practice paid inclusion for its search service.
  • March 25 2004: Yahoo acquires the European shopping search engine Kelkoo.
Yahoo-owned services This is a partial list. For a complete listing of the services see List of Yahoo services (
  • Yahoo! Games
  • Yahoo! Finance
  • Yahoo! Groups
  • Yahoo! Mail
  • Yahoo! Messenger
  • GeoCities
  • LAUNCHcast
  • HotJobs
  • Yahoo! Movies
  • Yahooligans!, a kids' version of the web portal
  • Yahoo! Launch, providing free music videos
  • Yahoo! Search
  • Yahoo! TV
Yahoo! and Wikipedia Yahoo! searching exclusively on Wikipedia content is possible using the following URL:
See also
  • List of websites
External links


Y is the twenty-fifth letter of the Latin alphabet.
See V. In Greek Υψιλον (Ypsilon) was pronounced /u/ (later on /y/, now /i/; see English myth and gift which both have /I/). The Romans borrowed Y directly from the Greek, because they felt that V no longer adequately represented Greek /y/. The English name of the letter - /waI/ - is of unknown origin. In Spanish, Y is called i griega, in Catalan i grega and in French and Dutch i grec (all mean "Greek i"); in most other European languages the Greek name is still used. The letter Y was originally established as a vowel. It is now established both as a vowel and as a consonant. On Wheel of Fortune, the letter Y counts as a consonant.
The letter y was used by Caxton and other printers in mediaeval England to represent the thorn.
Originally, Y was a vowel letter in Greek, representing [u] (later on, front rounded [y], and in Modern Greek, [i]), and it normally has the sound value [y] in German, in Finnish and the Scandinavian languages. The letter Y nicely shows how letters change their function. In Afrikaans, Y denotes the diphthong [EI], probably as a result of mixing lower case i and y or may derive from the IJ ligature. In Dutch, Y appears only in loanwords and names and is usually pronounced [i]. It is often left out of the Dutch alphabet and replaced with the "Dutch Y". Italian, too, has Y only in very few loanwords.
In Castilian language, Y was used as a word-initial form of I that was more visible. German has used J in a similar way. Hence el Yugo y las Flechas was a symbol sharing the initials of Isabella I of Castile (Ysabel) and Ferdinand II of Aragon. This spelling was reformed by the Royal Spanish Academy and currently is only found in proper names spelt archaicly, such as Ybarra or CYII, the symbol of the Canal de Isabel II. X is also still used in Spanish with a different sound in some archaisms.
Yankee represents the letter Y in the NATO phonetic alphabet.
Meanings for Y

  • "The Y" is short for:

  • the YMCA, or sometimes, the YWCA.

  • Brigham Young University (BYU) or the large "Y" made of stones on the mountain overlooking BYU.

  • In biochemistry, Y is the symbol for tyrosine.

  • In chemistry, Y is the symbol for yttrium.

  • In color models,

  • Y stands for the color yellow in the CMYK color model.

  • Y stands for luminance in many color models used for television broadcast, such as YIQ and YUV.

  • In combinatory logic, Y is the name of a well known fixed point combinator.

  • In comic books, Y: The Last Man is the title of a DC comics series by Brian K. Vaughan.

  • In command line interpreters like 4DOS, y is a command to concatenate the output of two or more streams.

  • In electrical engineering, Y is the symbol for admittance, the inverse of impedance.

  • In film, Y is the name of a 1987 Swedish film; see Y (film).

  • In games, Y is the name of a modern board game, played on a triangle-shaped board; see Y (game)

  • In geography,

  • Y is the name of a place in Alaska; see Y, Alaska.

  • Y is the name of a municipality in the Somme d鰡rtement of France; see Y, France.

  • In mathematics, y is the usual symbol for the variable represented on the vertical axis (ordinate) in analytic geometry.

  • In the Metric system,

  • Y, yotta is the SI prefix meaning 1024.

  • y, yocto is the SI prefix meaning 10-24.

  • In sociology, Y refers to Generation Y.

  • In statistics and analysis, y denotes the dependent variable.

  • In video games, Y is an abbreviation for Yoshi, a Nintendo character.
Two-letter combinations starting with Y:
  • ya yb yc yd ye yf yg yh yi yj yk yl ym yn yo yp yq yr ys yt yu yv yw yx yy yz
Letter-digit combinations starting with Y:
  • Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9