Saturday, September 03, 2005


A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a memory book created by students and distributed to the rest of the school at the end of the year. Virtually all U.S. high schools, many colleges, and some middle schools have them. Most yearbooks contain a section with individual pictures in alphabetical order by class and accompanied by the students' names. Sometimes large group pictures of the entire class are included as well. Modern yearbooks often have a section in color, typically depicting student life and/or seniors. Other sections may include articles about athletics, academics, or other activities. Some yearbooks are distributed at the beginning of the following year so that year-end events can be included. Others contain a supplemental section that is printed separately and distributed either with the book or after the end of school.

Herff Jones and Jostens are two major yearbook printing companies in the United States. Many other companies publish books as well. The yearbook plants send representatives to work with the yearbook staff at each school. Although in the past most yearbooks were laid out by hand, with pictures physically cropped and placed on layout boards, today most of the work is done on computers and submitted by disk. Pictures are either taken with a digital camera or scanned in using a negative scanner, which is much more detailed than a flatbed scan of a print. The pictures are cropped and adjusted using a photo editing program such as Adobe Photoshop. Layout is the look of the page, where the white space is, where photos will go and what size they will be, and the placement, font, and size of the text. Most layouts contain photos, captions, headlines, copy, and white space. Copy is the main story on the layout, and white space is the empty area between the other elements of the layout.

Most yearbook staffs consist of an adviser (a teacher who oversees the production of the yearbook), one or more editors (students who are in charge of production), and staff members (students who take pictures, design layouts, and write stories). Some staffs also have members who take care of other matters such as advertising.

A yearbook begins with careful planning, usually done by the editors and adviser. Some editors go to yearbook camp to prepare for the task ahead. They design a cover, create a theme which runs through the book, design templates for the layouts, and make a ladder. A ladder is a list of every page in the book and what will be on it. It is a crucial roadmap for making a coherent book.

Every so often, yearbook staff members will face the dreaded deadline. Groups of pages must be sent periodically to the plant; the book is not all sent at the same time. Each page must be checked by the editors and changes made. The pages are then burned onto a CD or placed on a Zip Disk or other medium and mailed to the plant to be printed. A few days or weeks later, the editors receive proofs, full size prints that closely match what the final product will look like. This gives them a final opportunity to make adjustments or changes. After all the pages have been sent in the book goes through a printing process and the finished books are sent back to the school for distribution.


  • Yearbook Interactive - Authoring software for schools, as well as digital publication/replication of completed CD-ROM yearbook projects.
    --   Reference: Education: Products and Services: Yearbooks   (20)

  • Adventist Organizational DirectoryEditor's Choice   - Organizational locator and standard reference for Adventist organizations and entities worldwide. This database has more local information than the Adventist Yearbook and is updated more frequently.
    --   Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Seventh-day Adventists: Denominational Organization   (2)

  • AOA Yearbook and DirectoryEditor's Choice   - Find D.O.'s in the U.S. by medical specialty, name, or location in this database of members of the American Osteopathic Association.
    --   Health: Medicine: Osteopathy: Physicians   (1)

  • The Republic of China Yearbook 2003 - By Government Information Office, Taiwan.
    --   Regional: Asia: Taiwan   (1)

  • The Wales Yearbook - A canonical reference book about public life in Wales. Offers selections in PDF, including the year in review, public bodies, Welsh organizations, and profiles of officials in Wales and at Westminster.
    --   Society: Politics: Directories   (1)

  • Agricultural Outlook Yearbook, 1960-1991 - Features tab separated data sets for downloading provided by the US Department of Agriculture.
    --   Science: Agriculture: Databases   (1)

  • Adventist Organizational DirectoryEditor's Choice   - Provides an organizational locator and standard reference for Adventist organizations and entities worldwide. This database differs from the Adventist Yearbook in that Yearbook does not contain local churches and schools and information in the Yearbook is updated only once a year.
    --   Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Seventh-day Adventists: Churches   (1)

  • Travel Industry World Yearbook - Research tool for travel industry professionals.
    --   Business: Hospitality: Travel: Resources   (1)

  • Anarchist Yearbook 1995 - A directory of anarchist periodicals, pubilshers, organisations, and bookshops in the UK.
    --   Society: Politics: Anarchism: Directories   (1)

  • Digital Yearbook - News and information for the College of New Jersey softball alumni.
    --   Sports: Softball: Fastpitch: News and Media   (1)

  • Environment Industry Yearbook Online (UK) - Comprehensive directory with searchable database of UK environmental companies, news, events and industry information.
    --   Science: Environment: Directories: Regional   (1)

  • Philosophy of Education Society Yearbook - Online publication of the Philosophy of Education Society. Includes invited and refereed papers from the PES annual meetings.
    --   Society: Philosophy: Philosophy of Education: Publications   (2)

  • Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development - Presents informed annual evaluations of international collaboration on environmental and developmental issues, as well as listing key data concerning related international agreements, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) including UN specialized agencies; and international NGOs.
    --   Society: Issues: Environment: Sustainable Development   (1)

  • Newburyport High School Yearbook - Alumni resources, including a message board, classmate contact information, and reunion events. Requires free registration.
    --   Regional: North America: United States: Massachusetts: Localities: N: Newburyport: Education   (2)

  • Search Engine Yearbook - Resource on Internet searching and search engine optimization, with an e-book offered for sale.
    --   Computers: Internet: Web Design and Development: Promotion: FAQs, Help, and Tutorials   (1)

  • Yearbook of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine - Produced each September and featuring abstracts of articles from international publications. Includes information on editors and prices.
    --   Health: Medicine: Medical Specialties: Perinatology: Journals   (1)

  • Yearbook Consulting by Create Connections Networking & Lobbying GmbH - Man versteht sich als Standardwerk f�r und �ber den deutschsprachigen Consulting-Markt. Informationen �ber die Print- und Online-Ausgabe des Jahrbuchs. [A-1010 Wien]
    --   World: Deutsch: Wirtschaft: Unternehmensberatung: Verzeichnisse   (1)

  • The Search Engine Yearbook - A regularly updated search engine reference book published by Pandecta Magazine.
    --   Computers: Internet: Web Design and Development: Promotion: Guides   (1)

  • Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development - Presents informed annual evaluations of international collaboration on environmental and developmental issues, as well as listing key data concerning related international agreements, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) including UN specialized agencies; and international NGOs.
    --   Science: Social Sciences: Political Science: International Relations: Publications   (1)

  • The European Football Yearbook - Reference on the European football scene with over 50 featured nations.
    --   Shopping: Sports: Soccer: Books and Videos   (1)

    The Yazoo River

    The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi and the second longest tributary of the Mississippi River that flows into that river from the east (the longest is the Ohio River).

    The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 in reference to a Native American tribe living near the river's mouth. The exact meaning of the term is unclear. Long held belief is that it means river of death.

    The river is 188 miles long and is formed by the confluence of the Tallahatchie River and the Yalobusha River. Due to the geography of the terrain, the river parallels the Mississippi River for some distance before joining it north of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

    The river was of major importance during the American Civil War. The first electronically detonated underwater mine was used on the river in 1862 near Vicksburg to sink the Federal ironclad USS Cairo.

    There are 29 sunken ships from the American Civil War beneath the waters of the river.

  • Mute: Yazoo - Official site from their record label with images, audio, and information about reissues. -- Arts: Music: Bands and Artists: Y: Yazoo (5)

  • Musicfolio: Yazoo - Profile and album reviews. -- Arts: Music: Bands and Artists: Y: Yazoo (5)

  • Yazoo County, MSGenWeb - Genealogical research resources, including a brief history of the county. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Counties: Yazoo (3)

  • Yazoo City Local News: - Local, regional, and statewide news collected from diverse sources on the web. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Localities: Y: Yazoo City (1)

  • Yazoo Records - An independent record and video company dedicated to making available classic performances of early Blues, rural American and Ethnic music at the highest standards possible. -- Business: Arts and Entertainment: Music: Labels: Specialty (2)

  • Yazoo Mills Inc. - Manufacturer of custom made spirally wound paper tubes and cores, blade-cut label cores, converting cores and mailing tubes. -- Business: Industrial Goods and Services: Packaging: Supplies (1)

  • - --

  • Yazoo City Municipal School District - (Yazoo City) Calendar, administrative directory, mission statement, school web sites, and contact information. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Education: School Districts (2)

  • Yazoo-Mississippi Delta Levee Board - Erects, maintains, and operates a system of levees to protect the Delta from damages due to high waters of the Mississippi River. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Regions: Delta (2)

  • Yazoo Hardwood Nursery - Grower of tree seedlings in Mississippi, supplying the Southern and Central US. Products include various oak species, bald cypress, plum, pecan, and persimmon. -- Business: Agriculture and Forestry: Horticulture: Ornamentals: Trees and Shrubs (1)

  • Yazoo Records - Offers country blues recordings. Includes an online catalog. -- Arts: Music: Instruments: Stringed: Guitar: Fingerstyle: Blues (1)

  • Yazoo Indians - A small tribe formerly living on the lower course of Yazoo River, Mississippi, in close connection with several other tribes, including the Tonica. -- Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Catholicism: Reference: Catholic Encyclopedia: Y (1)

  • Yazoo Brewing Company - Nashville microbrewer of Yazoo Spring Wheat, Dos Perros, Strongman Stout, Amarillo Pale Ale and contract beers. -- Recreation: Food: Drink: Beer: Brewers: Microbrewers and Brewpubs: North America: United States: Tennessee (1)

  • InCo, Inc. - Infection control software, Data Processing, Consultation and Reference Information. Specializing in epidemiology for long term care facilities. Yazoo City, Mississippi, USA. -- Business: Healthcare: Products and Services: Infection Control (1)

  • Blue art - YU-GI-OH! KaibaxYami Yaoi Page. So wie vieles mit Sephiroth, Yazoo und Kadaj aus Advent Children. Nur selbstgemachtes! Es gibt auch Fanfiction, Doujinshi und vieles mehr. -- World: Deutsch: Medien: Fernsehen: Sendungen: Zeichentrick: Anime: Fanseiten (1)

  • Tonica Indians - A small tribe living, when first known to the French, in small villages on the lower Yazoo River, Mississippi. -- Society: Religion and Spirituality: Christianity: Denominations: Catholicism: Reference: Catholic Encyclopedia: T (1)

  • Sunflower County Freedom Project - Inspired by "freedom schools" of 1960's Civil Rights Movement, it offers academic enrichment, cultural activities, and leadership development for children of the rural Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. Features programs, history, staff and news. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Localities: S: Sunflower (1)

  • Bentonia-Gibbs Elementary/Middle School - Directory of staff, photos of clubs and student projects. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Localities: B: Bentonia: Education (1)

  • M.I.S.: Yazoo - Biography, discography, and photos. -- Arts: Music: Bands and Artists: Y: Yazoo (5)

  • Yazoo County Convention and Visitors Bureau - Includes information for the county on dining, attractions, history, recreation, museums and transportation. Provides a calendar of events and contact details. -- Regional: North America: United States: Mississippi: Counties: Yazoo (3)
  • Yawn

    A yawn is a reflex of deep inhalation and exhalation associated with being tired, with a need to sleep, or from boredom. The word "yawn" has evolved from the Middle English word yanen, an alteration of yonen, or yenen, which in turn comes from the Old English geonian. Yawning is a powerful non-verbal message with several possible meanings, depending on the circumstances:

       1. It can be an indication of tiredness, stress, over-work or boredom.
       2. An action indicating psychological decompression after a state of high alert.
       3. A means of expressing powerful emotions like anger and rejection.

    A yawn can express strong anti-social messages, and so in some cultures people try to mute or mask them by placing a concealing hand over the yawning mouth.
    Causes of yawning
    A cat yawning
    A cat yawning

    A long-standing theory behind yawning is that yawning is caused by an excess of carbon dioxide and lack of oxygen in the blood. The brain stem detects this and triggers the yawn reflex. The mouth stretches wide and the lungs inhale deeply, bringing oxygen into the lungs and thence to the bloodstream. It is almost certain however, that this hypothesis is not correct; a more recent theory is that yawning is used for regulation of body temperature. Another theory is that yawns are caused by the same chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain that affect emotions, mood, appetite and other phenomena. These chemicals include serotonin, dopamine, glutamic acid and nitric oxide. As more of these compounds are activated in the brain, the frequency of yawning increases. Conversely, a greater presence in the brain of opiate neurotransmitters such as endorphins, reduces the frequency of yawning.

    The yawn reflex is often described as infectious: if one person yawns, this will cause another person to "sympathetically" yawn. The reasons for this are unclear, possibly due to the "power of suggestion". Other theories suggest that the yawn serves to synchronize mood behavior among gregarious animals, similar to the howling of the wolf pack during a full moon. It signals tiredness to other members of the group in order to synchronize sleeping patterns and periods of activity. It can serve as a warning in displaying large, canine teeth thus proclaiming, "don't attack while I am sleeping."

    Adelie Penguins employ yawning as part of their courtship ritual. Penguin couples face off and the males engage in what is described as an "ecstatic display," their beaks open wide and their faces pointed skyward.
    External links

        * Causes, Concerns and Communications of the Yawn (
        * "What makes us yawn?" (
        * Dr. Steven Platek - Yawn Researcher at Drexel University (


  • Yawn,Caroline Anna - Located in Florida. Resume, image gallery and contact information.
    --   Business: Arts and Entertainment: Fashion: Modeling: Resumes and Portfolios: Individual: Y   (1)

  • Yawn Patrol Zone Toastmasters Club - Site contains information on the area's only Toastmasters club including meeting times and location.
    --   Regional: North America: United States: North Carolina: Localities: C: Concord: Society and Culture   (1)

  • Yawn, another Victoria's Secret TV show - [CNN]
    --   News: Online Archives: 2003: November: Entertainment   (1)

  • 4th and yawn - [CNN]
    --   News: Online Archives: 2000: August: Entertainment   (1)

  • Microsoft upgrades IE yawn - [CNN]
    --   News: Online Archives: 1999: March: Tech   (1)

  • Cuba greets U.S. elections with yawn - [CNN]
    --   News: Online Archives: 2000: November: World: Americas   (1)

  • Jeepers Creepers 2 - Brian Orndorf reviews the movie, " big yawn."
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: J: Jeepers Creepers Series: Jeepers Creepers 2: Reviews   (1)

  • Taylor, G. Wells - When Graveyards Yawn. A hard-boiled detective novel meets gothic horror tale after the Apocalypse. The most unusual detective since the end of the world.
    --   Shopping: Publications: Books: Fiction: Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror: Specific Horror Titles   (1)
  • Yarmulk

    A yarmulke (Yiddish ??????? yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew "???????" kippah, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. Yarmulkes range in size from 6" in diameter to 9 1/2" (150 mm to 240 mm) or larger.

    Traditionally it was worn only by men (women covered their heads more completely with scarves, hats, or wigs), but in modern times the push for equality between the sexes in the practice of Judaism has led some women to wear yarmulkes. Some Jews only wear yarmulkes while praying, making blessings, or studying Jewish religious texts; more traditional Jews wear yarmulkes the entire day, making sure not to walk more than four cubits without a head covering (especially outside).

    Often, the color and fabric of the yarmulke can be a sign of adherence to a specific religious movement. The Israeli Religious Zionist community is often referred to by the name kippot srugot ????? ??????, literally "woven yarmulkes," though they are typically crocheted. Similarly, some Haredi sects are referred to by the name kipot shkhorot ????? ??????, literally "black yarmulkes"; their yarmulkes are usually sewn of black fabric, often larger than kippot srugot, and sometimes covered by a hat.
    Yarmulkes on sale in Jerusalem, June 2004
    Yarmulkes on sale in Jerusalem, June 2004

    The etymology of yarmulke is unclear. Some linguists (e.g. Max Vasmer) maintain that the Yiddish word is derived (via Ukrainian or Polish) from the Turkic ya�murluk, meaning 'rainwear'. Other linguists (e.g. Herbert Zeiden) regard this hypothesis as untenable but still believe a Turkic origin is likely, suggesting that the first part of the word may come from yarim, a Turkic adjective meaning 'half', while the second part may come from qap, a Turkic word for 'cap', 'shell', 'enclosure', or 'container'.

    Traditionally, yarmulke is considered to have originated from the Aramaic phrase "yarei mei-elokah" (in awe of the Lord), in keeping with the principle that the yarmulke is supposed to reflect someone's fear of heaven. Or perhaps, "yira malkah" (fear of the King).

    In Hebrew, the word kippah means dome.
    The late Rabbi J.B. Soloveitchik of Yeshiva University (N.Y., USA) wearing a typical black cloth yarmulke
    The late Rabbi J.B. Soloveitchik of Yeshiva University (N.Y., USA) wearing a typical black cloth yarmulke

    The source for wearing a yarmulke is found in the Talmud. In tractate Shabbat 156b it states Cover your head in order that the fear of heaven may be upon you. As well, in tractate Kiddushin 32a it states Rabbi Huna the son of Rabbi Joshua never walked 4 cubits (2 meters) with his head uncovered. He explained: "Because the Divine Presence (Shekhina) is always over my head." While there is a minority opinion that wearing a yarmulke is a Torah commandment, most halakhic decisors agree that it is merely a custom, though one that has taken on the force of law. This is codified in the Shulkhan Arukh Orach Chayim 2:6.

    Reasons given for wearing a kippah today include:

        * recognition that God is above us,
        * acceptance of the 613 mitzvot (commandments),
        * identification with the Jewish people.

    External links

        * Aish HaTorah's Ask the Rabbi on head covering (
        * Ohr Someyach's Ask the Rabbi on head covering (
        * Chabad-Lubavitch Laws of head covering (


    The term Yankee has a variety of meanings. Residents of the United States of America use it to refer to the New York Yankees baseball team, a resident of New England or the North, or more often, in the context of the American Civil War, the soldiers and residents of the northern United States including the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic, and New England states, as well as other border-state and African-American troops. Regionally, today Yankee most often refers to a New Englander (in which case it may denote New England puritan and thrifty values) or, in the American South, to anyone from the Northern states. The principal use of the term in the U.S. is a means of distinguishing Yankees from those from the South (i.e., the southeastern states). See also Yankee ingenuity.

    The term probably originated in old New Amsterdam, New Holland and New York, in the Mid-Atlantic. It then was adopted by the British to describe (Northern) colonists. In the Civil War, the phrase referred to all residents and soldiers of northern or free states, usually used derisively by rebel troops and secession sympathizers.

    The New York Yankees baseball team refocused attention on New York, and the need to describe the rural, New Englander of puritan stock probably caused reporters and authors to bring back the slang shorthand term Yankee. Finally, citizens of other countries, including the British during the World Wars, referred to all Americans as Yanks. This is not to be confused with the British slang wank, which is something else entirely.

    The term Yankee is still used in South as a derisive term for persons from any state north of the Mason-Dixon Line. See also carpetbagger.

    Others—that is, speakers from outside of the USA—often use it to refer to any resident of the USA (as opposed to American in general), especially in the form Yank. The words are sometimes spelt with a lowercase initial, yankee and yank. In some parts of the world, particularly in Latin America and East Asia, yankee or yanqui is meant as an insult and is politically associated with anti-imperialism and used in expressions such as "Yankee go home".

    Hence, the term has had different positive, negative, contextual and regional associations over the years, as books, media, troops, teams, and peoples have used it differently for different purposes.

        To foreigners, a Yankee is an American.
        To Americans, a Yankee is an Easterner.
        To Easterners, a Yankee is a New Englander.
        To New Englanders, a Yankee is a Vermonter.
        And in Vermont, a Yankee is somebody who eats pie for breakfast.
        —(an old definition)

  • New York Yankees by AllSports - Articles written by "fan reporters." News, results, schedules, draft information, team information, message board, links, and resources.
    --   Sports: Baseball: Major League: Teams: New York Yankees   (18)

  • Greatest Films - Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942) - Detailed review, synopsis and discussion of the film
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Doodle Dandy   (9)

  • Yankee Tradition - Tribute to Yankees Heroes of past, present, and future.
    --   Sports: Baseball: Major League: Teams: New York Yankees   (18)

  • TV Guide Online: Yankee Doodle Dandy - Review and credits.
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Doodle Dandy   (9)

  • TV Guide Online: Yankee Zulu - Review and credits.
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Zulu   (2)

  • New Yankee Workshop - Official site for the show, with schedule, project plans, and image gallery.
    --   Arts: Television: Programs: Home and Garden: New Yankee Workshop, The   (2)

  • IMDB : Yankee Fakir, The (1947) - Full cast and crew for the film, and other information from the Internet Movie Database.
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Fakir, The   (1)

  • IMDB : Yankee Pasha (1954) - Full cast and crew for the film, and other information from the Internet Movie Database.
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Pasha   (1)

  • IMDB : Yankee Seduction (1984) - Full cast and crew for the film, and other information from the Internet Movie Database.
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Seduction   (1)

  • IMDB : Yankee Buccaneer (1952) - Full cast and crew for the film, and other information from the Internet Movie Database.
    --   Arts: Movies: Titles: Y: Yankee Buccaneer   (1)

  • Michael Cartellone - Fan site for the Damn Yankees drummer includes history, discography, photographs, schedule of appearances, and updates from Michael.
    --   Arts: Music: Bands and Artists: D: Damn Yankees   (2)

  • Yankee Grey - Record label site includes tour information, audio and video clips, biography, photos, press releases, and screen saver.
    --   Arts: Music: Styles: Country: Bands and Artists: Y: Yankee Grey   (4)

  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court - Etext and study resources at the University of Virginia.
    --   Arts: Literature: World Literature: American: 19th Century: Twain, Mark: Works: Novels: Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, A   (7)

  • Yankee Hill Fire Safe Council - Contact information.
    --   Regional: North America: United States: California: Localities: Y: Yankee Hill   (1)

  • A Caribbean Party Cruise Aboard Yankee Clipper - A weeklong adventure sailing through the Caribbean Windward Islands with a group of fun-seeking singles aboard the sailing vessel, Yankee Clipper.
    --   Recreation: Travel: Travelogues: Caribbean   (3)

  • Connecticut Yankee - Connecticut's first commercial nuclear power plant, it was shut down in 1996 and is now undergoing decomissioning.
    --   Science: Technology: Energy: Nuclear: Power Plants   (3)

  • Yankees Newswire - For people who love to hate the Yankees.
    --   Recreation: Humor: Sports   (2)

  • Red Sox vs Yankees Site - Follow the long, storied rivalry between these two teams.
    --   Sports: Baseball: Major League: Fan Pages   (3)

  • The Yankee Collector - Offers Civil War and early American historic antiques and collectibles including photographs, letters, documents, and weapons.
    --   Shopping: Antiques and Collectibles: Militaria: US Civil War   (2)

  • Yankee United SoccerEditor's Choice   - Young Women's Premier Soccer Club. Information on the club's teams, coaches and players.
    --   Sports: Soccer: CONCACAF: United States: Youth: Clubs and Teams: Connecticut   (2)
  • Yana

    Yana is a Sanskrit word meaning vehicle. In Buddhism, it represents an augmentation to the analogy of the spiritual path, to include the idea of various vehicles that can take the practitioner along that path.


    Origins of -yana: Vehicles and Paths

    It appears that the distinction between vehicles and paths arises in early Mahayana sutras, such as the Lotus Sutra, where it is stated that there is one path - the path to Nirvana -, but there are different vehicles. In this sense, the vehicles are described as representing the fruit of three types of Buddha found in Nikaya sutras. For instance, in Chapter three of the Lotus Sutra, there is a parable of a father promising three carts to lure sons out of a burning building, where the goat-cart represents Sravaka-Buddhahood; the deer-cart, Pratyeka-Buddhahood; and the bullock-cart, Samyaksam-Buddhahood.

    Yana has been used subseqently in a number of schematicizations of the Buddhist teachings in which there have been one, three, five, six, and nine vehicles.

    The one yana

    This idea comes from the late Mahayana and refers to teachings contained in texts such as the White Lotus Sutra and the Avatamsaka Sutra which claim to unite all the different teachings into a single great way. Hence they are callled Ekayana which is Sanskrit for 'one vehicle'

    The two yanas

    The two vehicles in Mahayana Buddhism are occasionally used to indicate the Mahayana (Bodhisattvas) and the Hinayana (Sravakas/Pratyekas). See the more normal tripartite division that follows.

    The three yanas

    Two different schemata of three yanas are used:

    Firstly is the three yanas from the point of view of the Mahayana which paths to liberation as culminating one of the three types of Buddha:

    • Sravakayana: The Hearer vehicle: A path that meets the goals of a Sravaka-Buddha – an individual who achieves liberation as a result of listening to the teachings (or lineage) of a Bodhisattva Buddha. Sravaka-Buddhas are not able to turn the wheel of Dharma for the first time.
    • Pratyekayana: The individual vehicle: A Solitary Buddha (Pratyeka-Buddha) is an indidividual who achieves liberation, but does not teach other beings. Pratyeka-Buddhas do not depend upon the teachings of others, but achieve Nirvana through personal self-discovery alone. Pratyekabuddhas are not interested in turning the wheel of Dharma for the first time.
    • Bodhisattvayana: The Samyaksam-Buddha wishes to benefit as many beings as possible, so the individual relinquishes the path of a Sravaka, in order to turn the wheel of Dharma for the first time.

    A second classification came into use with the rise of the Vajrayana, which created a hierarchy of the teachings with the Vajrayana being the highest path. The Vajrayana itself become multilayered especially in Tibetan Buddhism.

    In this list each yana is also talked about as a "turning of the wheel" which is a traditional India reference to the teaching of the Dharma. In the Pali Canon the first teaching is called the Dhammacakkappavatana Sutta or the First Turning of the Wheel of the Buddhist Teaching. The Mahayana then styled itself as a second, turning of the wheel, and the Vajrayana a third.

    The four yanas

    The four yanas are the two different schemes of the three yanas subsumed:

    The five yanas

    This is a Mahayana list which is found in East Asian Buddhism.

    • purisayana - the human vehicle. This is the very beginning of the spiritual path
    • devayana - the practice of ethics and meditation
    • Shravakayana - the practice of renunciation and the Four Noble Truths
    • Pratyekayana - practice concerned with dependent arising (pratitya-samutpada)
    • Bodhisattvayana - practice of the six perfections

    The six yanas

    The five yanas plus the Vajrayana. This schema is associated with Shingon Buddhism in Japan. It was invented by Kukai in order to help to differentiate the Vajrayana teachings that he imported from China in the early 9th century. Kukai wanted to show that the new teachings were entirely new.

    The nine yanas

    The Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism has nine yanas, a list made by combining the first type of three yanas, and adding the six classes of tantras.

    • Shravakayana
    • Pratyekayana
    • Mahayana
    • Vajrayana (consisting of)
      • Outer Tantras
      • Kryatantra
      • Upatantra (Tibetan spyod rgyud) ‘practice tantra’ and the Ubhayatantra (gnyis ka’i rgyud), ‘dual tantra’, because it practices the view of the next vehicle, Yogatantra, together with the action of the former.
      • Yogatantra
      • Inner Tantras
      • Mahayoga
      • Anuyoga
      • Atiyoga (also Dzog Chen)

    The twelve yanas

    1. Sravakayana
    2. Pratyekabuddhayana
    3. Bodhisattvayana
    4. Kriyayoga
    5. Charyayoga, or Upayoga
    6. Yogatantra
    7. Mahayoga
    8. Anuyoga
    9. Atiyoga, or Mahasandhiyoga; in Tibetan, Dzogpa Chenpo
    10. Semde
    11. Longde
    12. Mengagde

    See also: Hinayana, Mahayana, Vajrayana

    External links

    Yale University

    Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, Yale is the third-oldest American institution of higher education (or fourth, if St. John's College, Annapolis is included) and one of the most prestigious and well-known in the world. The University has graduated numerous Nobel Prize laureates and U.S. Presidents, including William Clinton and George W. Bush. Its $12.7 billion academic endowment is the second largest of any university, behind only Harvard.

    Yale is one of the eight members of the Ivy League. The rivalry between Yale and fellow Ivy League school Harvard University is long and storied; from academics to rowing to college football, their historic competition is similar to that of Oxford and Cambridge.

    Yale's emphasis on undergraduate teaching is unusual among its peer research universities, and its undergraduates live in a unique residential college system. Yale College has produced more Rhodes Scholars than any undergraduate institution save Harvard. Yale's graduate schools include strong drama and arts programs and the most selective law school in the United States. The University has over 3,000 faculty members, with Sterling Professors considered the highest rank.

    1 History

    2 Schools and libraries

    3 Heads of Collegiate School, Yale College, and Yale University

    4 Residential colleges

    5 Other campus buildings

    6 Benefactors

    7 Famous alumni

    7.1 Nobel laureates
    7.2 Technology & innovation
    7.3 Founders, entrepreneurs, & CEO's
    7.4 Academics
    7.5 Presidents & Vice Presidents of the United States
    7.6 Law & politics
    7.7 History, literature, art & music
    7.8 Athletics
    7.9 Film
    7.10 Television
    7.11 Fictional

    8 Famous professors

    9 Famous on-campus tragedies

    10 See also

    11 External links

    Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School" passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut and dated October 9, 1701, which was furthered by a meeting in Branford, Connecticut by a group of ten Congregationalist ministers, now known collectively as the Founders, who pooled their books to form the school's first library. The school first opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson in Killingworth, Connecticut. In 1716, the school moved to New Haven, Connecticut, where it remains to this day.

    The college was originally known as the Collegiate School; it adopted the name Yale after Cotton Mather, a friend of the Collegiate School because of his feuds with Harvard, contacted Elihu Yale for help (at the behest of either Rector Andrew or Governor Saltonstall). Yale bestowed a generous gift of nine bales of goods (which the school sold, netting over ?560, a substantial sum of money at the time), 417 books, and a portrait of King George I. Yale expanded gradually, establishing the Yale Medical School (1810), Yale Divinity School (1822), Yale Law School (1843), Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (1847), the Yale School of Fine Arts (1869), and Yale School of Music (1894). In the early 20th century, Yale merged with the Sheffield Scientific School.

    Schools and libraries
    Yale College, which accepts fewer than 10 percent of its applicants, is one of the most selective colleges in the United States, behind only MIT, Princeton, Caltech according to The Atlantic Monthly. Yale is also noted for its law school, medical school, graduate school, and school of music. The Yale Divinity School was founded in the early 19th century by Congregationalists who felt that the Harvard University divinity school had become too liberal. The Yale Law School is the most selective in the United States, and has graduated U.S. presidents and Supreme Court justices.

    Yale's library system is the second largest in North America with a total of almost 11 million volumes, after Harvard (15 million volumes). The main library, Sterling Memorial Library, contains about 4 million volumes. The Beinecke Rare Book Library is housed in a marble building designed by Gordon Bunshaft, of the firm of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill. Its courtyard sculptures are by Isamu Noguchi. Other resources include the Peabody Museum of Natural History and the Yale Center for British Art.

    Yale supports 35 varsity athletic teams that compete in the Ivy League Conference and the Eastern College Athletic Conference, and Yale is an NCAA Division I member. American football was largely created at Yale by player and coach Walter Camp, who evolved the rules of the game away from rugby and soccer in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Yale has numerous athletic facilities, including the Payne Whitney Gymnasium, which is one of the largest and most elaborate indoor athletic complexes in the world. The school mascot is "Handsome Dan", the famous Yale bulldog.

    The Yale Daily News, the oldest daily college newspaper in the United States, has been a forum for opinion and controversy since 1878, and counts among its former chairmen Joseph Lieberman, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Strobe Talbott. The Yale Political Union is the oldest student political organization in the United States, and is advised by alumni political leaders such as John Kerry, Gerald Ford, and George Pataki. Dwight Hall, an independent, non-profit community service organization, oversees more than 2,000 Yale undergraduates working on more than 60 community service initiatives in New Haven. The Whiffenpoofs began the tradition of college a capella singing groups in 1909, and often perform on television and at the White House.

    Heads of Collegiate School, Yale College, and Yale University
    Rectors of Yale College   (birth-death)  (years as rector)
    1  Rev. Abraham Pierson    (1641-1707)   (1701-1707) Collegiate School
    2  Rev. Samuel Andrew      (1656-1738)   (1707-1719) (pro tempore)
    3  Rev. Timothy Cutler     (1684-1765)   (1719-1726) 1718/9: renamed Yale College
    4  Rev. Elisha William     (1694-1755)   (1726-1739)
    5  Rev. Thomas Clap        (1703-1767)   (1740-1745)

    Presidents of Yale College (birth-death) (years as president)
    1  Rev. Thomas Clap        (1703-1767)   (1745-1766)
    2  Rev. Naphtali Daggett   (1727-1780)   (1766-1777) (pro tempore)
    3  Rev. Ezra Stiles        (1727-1795)   (1778-1795)
    4  Timothy Dwight IV       (1752-1817)   (1795-1817)
    5  Jeremiah Day            (1773-1867)   (1817-1846)
    6  Theodore Dwight Woolsey (1801-1899)   (1846-1871)
    7  Noah Porter III         (1811-1892)   (1871-1886)
    8  Timothy Dwight V        (1828-1916)   (1886-1899) 1887: renamed Yale University
    9  Arthur Twining Hadley   (1856-1930)   (1899-1921)
    10 James Rowland Angell    (1869-1949)   (1921-1937)
    11 Charles Seymour         (1885-1963)   (1937-1951)
    12 Alfred Whitney Griswold (1906-1963)   (1951-1963)
    13 Kingman Brewster, Jr.   (1919-1988)   (1963-1977)
    14 Hanna Holborn Gray      (1930-    )   (1977-1977) (acting)
    15 A. Bartlett Giamatti    (1938-1989)   (1977-1986)
    16 Benno C. Schmidt, Jr.   (1942-    )   (1986-1992)
    17 Howard R. Lamar         (1923-    )   (1992-1993) (acting)
    18 Richard C. Levin        (1947-    )   (1993-    )

    Residential colleges
    Yale has a system of 12 residential colleges, instituted in the early 1930s through a grant by Yale graduate Edward S. Harkness, who admired the college system at Oxford and Cambridge. Undergraduate students are accepted by the university as a whole, and assigned to residential colleges at random. (A special dispensation, though, is made for "legacy" students or students with siblings currently enrolled in Yale College; they may request to be placed in the same college or to be placed in a different college.) Each college has a carefully constructed support structure for students, including a Dean, Master, affiliated faculty, and resident Fellows. Each college also features distinctive architecture, secluded courtyards, and rich facilities ranging from libraries to squash courts to darkrooms. While each college at Yale offers its own seminars, social events, and Master's Teas with luminaries from the outside world, Yale students also take part in academic and social programs across the university, and all of Yale's 2,000 courses are open to undergraduates from any college.

    Residential colleges are named for important figures or places in university history or notable alumni; they are deliberately not named for benefactors.

    Residential Colleges of Yale University (official list (

    Berkeley College [1] ( - named for the Rt. Rev. George Berkeley (1685-1753), early funder of Yale. Pronounced BERK-lee.
    Branford College [2] ( - named for Branford, Connecticut, where Yale was briefly located.
    Calhoun College [3] ( - named for John C. Calhoun, vice-president of the United States.
    Davenport College [4] ( - named for Rev. John Davenport, the founder of New Haven. Occasionally called "D'port".
    Ezra Stiles College [5] ( - named for the Rev. Ezra Stiles, a president of Yale. Generally called "Stiles," despite an early-1990s crusade by then-master Traugott Lawler to preserve the use of the full name in everyday speech. Its buildings were designed by Eero Saarinen.
    Jonathan Edwards College [6] ( - named for theologian and Yale president Jonathan Edwards. Generally called "J.E.".
    Morse College [7] ( - named for Samuel Morse, inventor of Morse Code. Also designed by Eero Saarinen.
    Pierson College [8] ( - named for Yale's first rector, Abraham Pierson.
    Saybrook College [9] ( - named for Old Saybrook, Connecticut, the town in which Yale was founded.
    Silliman College [10] ( - Yale's largest college, named for noted scientist and Yale professor Benjamin Silliman. Approximately half of its structures were originally part of the Sheffield Scientific School,
    Timothy Dwight College [11] ( - named for the two Yale presidents of that name, Timothy Dwight IV and Timothy Dwight V. Usually called "T.D."
    Trumbull College [12] ( - named for Jonathan Trumbull, governor of Connecticut.
    Other campus buildings
    Sterling Memorial Library
    Harkness Tower
    Woolsey Hall
    Beinecke Rare Book Library
    British Art Center
    Payne Whitney Gymnasium
    Ingalls Rink
    Battell Chapel
    Harkness Hall
    Yale School of Architecture
    Yale has had many financial supporters, but some stand out by the magnitude of their contributions. Among those who have made large donations commemorated at the university are:

    Edward S. Harkness
    William Harkness
    Paul Mellon
    John William Sterling
    Famous alumni
    Yale alumni are well represented in the ranks of U.S. presidents, including four of the last six: Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush, William Clinton, and George W. Bush. Beginning with Peace Corps founder and Democratic vice-presidential nominee Sargent Shriver in 1972, at least one Yale graduate has run on either the Democratic or Republican ticket in every presidential election for the past three decades, and both the Democratic and Republican candidates for the 2004 presidential election were Yale graduates: George W. Bush and John Kerry. In the 2004 Democratic primaries, Joe Lieberman and Howard Dean were also Yale graduates.

    Nobel laureates
    George Akerlof (B.A. 1962). Economics, 2001
    Raymond Davis. Physics, 2002.
    John F. Enders (B.A. ca. 1921). Physiology or Medicine, 1954.
    John Fenn (Ph.D. ca. 1940). Chemistry, 2002.
    Murray Gell-Mann (B.S. 1948). Physics, 1954.
    Alfred G. Gilman. Physiology or Medicine, 1994.
    Ernest Lawrence (B.S. 1922, Ph.D. 1925). Physics, 1939. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory & Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are named for him.
    Joshua Lederberg (Ph.D. 1948). Physiology or Medicine, 1958.
    David Lee (Ph.D. 1959). Physics, 1996.
    Sinclair Lewis (B.A. 1908). Literature, 1930.
    Lars Onsager (Ph.D. 1935). Chemistry, 1968.
    Dickinson Richards. Physiology or Medicine, 1956.
    William Vickrey (B.S. 1935). Economics, 1996.
    George Whipple (A.B. 1900). Physiology or Medicine, 1934.
    Eric Wieschaus (Ph.D.). Physiology or Medicine, 1995.
    Technology & innovation
    Francis S. Collins (Ph.D.), director, Human Genome Project
    Lee De Forest (B.S. 1896, Ph.D 1899), inventor of the triode
    W. Edwards Deming (Ph.D. 1928), "total quality management" (TQM) guru
    Irving Fisher (B.A. 1888, Ph.D. 1891), economist, "father of monetarism"
    J. Willard Gibbs (1858, Ph.D. 1863), mathematician, physical chemist, thermodynamicist, known for Gibb's Phenomenon
    Grace Hopper (Ph.D. 1934), inventor of COBOL programming language
    Art Laffer (B.A. 1963), economist, best known for the "Laffer Curve"
    Paul D. MacCready, "Engineer of the Century," won the Kremer Prize for first human-powered flying machine, pioneer in solar-powered flight
    Saunders MacLane (B.A. 1930), mathematician, one of the founders of "category theory"
    Jordan Mechner (B.A. 1985), videogame developer, created Prince of Persia
    Stanley Milgram (B.A. 1954), psychologist, Milgram experiment, coined the concept "six degrees of separation"
    Samuel Morse (1810), telegraph pioneer, inventor of Morse code
    Harry Nyquist (Ph.D. 1917), engineer known for the Nyquist theorem
    John Ousterhout, creator of the Tcl programming language
    Ronald Rivest (B.S. 1969), computer scientist, the "R" in the RSA cryptography, 2002 Turing Award receipient
    Benjamin Spock (B.A. 1925), child psychology guru
    Eli Whitney (1792), inventor of the cotton gin
    Founders, entrepreneurs, & CEO's
    Robert M. Bass, (B.A. 1971) President, Keystone, Inc.
    John Thomas Daniels, founder, Archer Daniels Midland
    Robert Glaser, (B.A., M.A.) founder & CEO, RealNetworks
    Bing Gordon, co-founder, executive vice-president, and chief creative officer of Electronic Arts
    Roberto Goizueta, former CEO, Coca-Cola (namesake of Emory University's business school)
    Briton Hadden, co-founder of TIME Magazine.
    Charles B. Johnson, chairman, Franklin Templeton Investments
    Mitch Kapor, founder, Open Source Applications Foundation, investor (Kapor Enterprises), former founder & CEO, Lotus Software
    Herbert Kohler, chairman & president, Kohler Company
    Clarence King, founder of the US Geological Survey (USGS)
    Edward Lampert, founder & chairman, ESL Investments (hedge fund), bought Kmart, now acquiring Sears
    Henry Luce (B.A. 1920), co-founder of TIME Magazine.
    John Franklyn Mars, CEO, Mars, Incorporated (as in Mars & M&M candy)
    Robert Moses, middle 20th century New York City construction czar
    Gifford Pinchot, founder of the United States Forest Service
    Robert Sargent Shriver III (Law), part-owner of the Baltimore Orioles
    Timothy Perry Shriver, CEO of the Special Olympics
    Frederick W. Smith, founder & CEO, FedEx
    Harold Stanley, founder, Morgan Stanley
    Richard Thalheimer, founder & CEO of The Sharper Image
    Juan Trippe, founder & CEO, Pan Am
    Frederick E. Weyerhaeuser, founder, Weyerhaeuser
    Richard H. Brodhead, president of Duke University
    Alan Dershowitz, law professor at Harvard University
    Jonathan Dickinson, founder of Princeton University
    Daniel Coit Gilman, first president of Johns Hopkins University
    William Rainey Harper, first president of the University of Chicago
    Lawrence Lessig, law professor at Stanford University
    Reinhold Niebuhr (DIV 1914), author, theologian
    Camille Paglia (Ph.D.), author of Sexual Personae
    Andrew Dickson White, first president of Cornell University
    Yung Wing, first Chinese person to receive an American college degree
    Presidents & Vice Presidents of the United States
    George H. W. Bush (B.A. 1948), President of the United States (1989-1993)
    George W. Bush (B.A. 1968), President of the United States (2001-present)
    Richard B. Cheney*, Vice President of the United States (2001-present)
    William Jefferson Clinton (J.D.), President of the United States (1993-2001)
    Gerald Ford (J.D.), President of the United States (1974-1977)
    William Howard Taft, President of the United States (1909-1913), Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930)
    Law & politics
    Dean Acheson, former Secretary of State
    Cecilia Altonaga, federal judge
    John Ashcroft, U.S. Attorney General (2001-2004), U.S. Senator (1993-2001), Governor of Missouri (1985-1993)
    Lee Aspin, Secretary of Defence, U.S. Congressman
    Roger Baldwin, U.S. Senator, Governor
    David Boies, famous lawyer (Microsoft antitrust, Bush v. Gore, Napster v. RIAA)
    David Boren, U.S. Senator
    William F. Buckley, political pundit
    McGeorge Bundy, former Cabinet official
    Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown, Jr. (Law), Mayor of Oakland, California (1999-present), Governor of California (1975-1983)
    John Calhoun, U.S. Vice President, U.S. Senator
    Karl Carstens, President of Germany (1979-1984)
    Hillary Clinton (J.D.), U.S. Senator, New York (2001-present)
    Mark Dayton, U.S. Senator, Minnesota (2000-present)
    Howard Dean, Governor of Vermont (1991-2003)
    William H. Donaldson, Chairman of the S.E.C. (2003-present), co-founder of Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette
    David Gergen, political pundit
    Steven Hadley, (J.D. 1972), National Security Adviser
    Nathan Hale, patriot & martyr, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
    James Jeffords, U.S. Senator, Vermont (1989-present)
    John Kerry, U.S. Senator, Massachusetts (1985-present)
    Tony Knowles, Governor of Alaska (1994-2002)
    Paul Krugman, respected economist, Princeton professor, NY Times columnist
    Joseph Lieberman, U.S. Senator, Connecticut (1989-present)
    Gary Locke, Governor of Washington (1997-2005)
    John Negroponte, Ambassador to Iraq (2004-present)
    Marvin Olasky, conservative pundit
    George Pataki, Governor of New York (1995-present)
    Clark T. Randt, Jr., U.S. ambassador to China (2001- present)
    Sargent Shriver, main organizer and first director of the Peace Corps. Husband of Eunice Kennedy, and father of Maria Shriver (news journalist and wife of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger).
    Potter Stewart, Supreme Court Justice (1958-1991)
    Robert Taft, Governor of Ohio (1999-present)
    Clarence Thomas (J.D. 1974), Supreme Court Justice (1991-present)
    Byron White, Supreme Court Justice (1962-1993)
    Pete Wilson, Governor of California (1991-1999)
    Ernesto Zedillo, President of Mexico (1994-2000)
    History, literature, art & music
    Hiram Bingham, rediscovered Machu Picchu, Peru
    Harold Bloom, American literary critic
    James Fenimore Cooper, author of The Last of the Mohicans
    Briton Hadden, co-founder of [[Time]Time magazine]]
    Charles Ives (1898), composer, classical music.
    John Knowles, author of A Separate Peace
    Maya Lin (B.A. 1981, M.Arch 1986, honorary Ph.D 1987), architect, best known for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial
    Henry R. Luce, co-founder of TIME magazine
    David McCullough, famous historian, winner of two Pulitzer Prizes, best known for his books on American Presidents Harry S. Truman and John Adams.
    Camille Paglia (Ph.D. 1974), cultural critic and feminist scholar
    Cole Porter, composer
    Samantha Power (B.A. 1992), winner of the Pulitzer Prize for the book A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide
    Mark Rothko* (enrolled 1921-23), painter
    Eero Saarinen (B.Arch, 1934), architect
    Robert A. M. Stern, architect, current dean of Yale School of Architecture
    Garry Trudeau, Doonesbury cartoonist
    Noah Webster, author of the dictionary of the English language
    Thornton Wilder, playwright, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for the play Our Town
    Naomi Wolf, feminist writer
    Tom Wolfe (PhD), journalist, author of The Right Stuff and The Bonfire of the Vanities
    Bob Woodward, journalist and co-author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book All the President's Men
    Walter Camp (B.A. 1880), the "Father of American Football"
    Theo Epstein (B.A. 1995), became Red Sox general manager at age 28, youngest in Major League Baseball history
    Sada Jacobson (B.A. 2005), first medalist in Olympic women's saber
    Frank Shorter (B.A., 1969) gold medal (1972) and silver medal (1976), Olympic Marathon
    Angela Bassett, actress
    Jennifer Beals, actress, best known for Flashdance
    Henry Bean, screenwriter/director The Believer
    Jordana Brewster, actress, plays Mia in The Fast and the Furious
    Bruce Cohen, film producer, won an Academy Award for American Beauty
    Michael Cimino, Academy Award-winning director
    Jennifer Connelly*, Academy Award-winning actress
    Claire Danes, actress, recently in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, also in Baz Luhrmann's Romeo and Juliet opposite Leonardo DiCaprio
    Jodie Foster (B.A. in literature, magna cum laude), Academy Award-winning actress and director
    Paul Giamatti (MFA, 1989), actor. Played "Harvey Pekar" in American Splendor (2003).
    David Alan Grier, actor, comedian
    Kathryn Hahn, actress
    George Roy Hill, Academy Award-winning director
    Holly Hunter, Academy Award-winning actress
    Elia Kazan*, Academy Award-winning director
    Phil LaMarr (B.A. 1989), actor, comedian. As "Marvin", got head shot off by John Travolta in Pulp Fiction
    Ron Livingston, actor. Best known for Office Space, plays "Jack Berger" in Sex and the City
    Frances McDormand (MFA), actress
    Paul Newman, Academy Award-winning actor
    Edward Norton (B.A. 1991), actor
    Bronson Pinchot (B.A. 1981), actor
    Vincent Price, actor
    Gene Siskel (B.A. 1967), movie critic
    Todd Solondz, director Welcome to the Dollhouse & Happiness
    Oliver Stone*, Academy Award-winning director
    Meryl Streep (MFA), Academy Award-winning actress
    John Turturro (MFA), actor
    Sam Waterston, actor
    Sigourney Weaver (MFA), actress
    Jennifer Westfeldt, actress, screenwriter (Kissing Jessica Stein)
    Enrico Colantoni, actor, played womanizing fashion photographer "Elliot DiMauro" on Just Shoot Me and "Mathesar" in the movie Galaxy Quest
    Dick Cavett, TV personality, nominated eleven times for the Emmy Award, and won three times.
    Anderson Cooper, CNN anchor of Anderson Cooper 360?
    Bill Corbett (DRA 1989), actor, writer, played Crow T. Robot in Mystery Science Theater 3000
    David Duchovny (M.A. English literature), actor in The X-Files
    Dick Ebersol, president of NBC Sports division, helped launch Saturday Night Live
    Sara Gilbert, actress, best known for her portrayal as the daughter "Darlene Conner" on the sit-com Roseanne
    Michael Gross (DRA 1973), actor, best known as "Steven Keaton" (the father of Michael J. Fox's character) on Family Ties
    Leo Laporte*, host of The Screen Savers on TechTV
    Ari Meyers, actress, played Emma McArdle on Kate & Allie
    Chris Noth (MFA), plays "Mr. Big" on Sex and the City
    Stone Phillips, television anchor for NBC
    Robert Picardo, the holographic doctor on the television show Star Trek: Voyager
    David Hyde Pierce, actor, best known as "Dr. Niles Crane" on Frasier
    Steve Skrovan, executive producer of Everybody Loves Raymond
    Ben Stein (J.D.), economist, host of Win Ben Stein's Money
    Ming Tsai, chef on East Meets West with Ming Tsai on PBS
    Margaret Warner, co-anchor on The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, PBS' weekday news program
    Henry Winkler (MFA), actor, best known as "Fonzie" on Happy Days
    "Charles Montgomery Burns", Class of 1914, the owner of the Springfield Nuclear Powerplant in the hit cartoon television series The Simpsons
    "Linus Larrabee", protagonist in the movie Sabrina, played by Humphrey Bogart in 1954 and Harrison Ford in 1995.
    "Dink Stover", hero of Owen Johnson's 1911 Stover at Yale
    "Rory Gilmore", main character of Gilmore Girls
    "Tom Buchanan", antagonist of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby
    "Nick Carraway", narrator of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby
    (* attended but did not graduate from Yale)

    Famous professors
    Professors who are also Yale alumni are listed in italics.

    Harold Bloom (Ph.D 1955), writer and critic, author of "Genius"
    Yung-Chi (Tommy) Cheng, pharmacology, inventor of AIDS drug 3TC, known as Epivir.
    Donald Kagan, ancient Greek historian
    Paul Kennedy, historian, author of "The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers".
    Harold Hongju Koh, Dean of Yale Law School, Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, in the Clinton Administration
    John Lewis Gaddis, Cold War historian
    David Gelernter (1976), computer scientist, co-creator of the Linda programming language
    Paul Hudak, computer scientist, known for his work on the Haskell programming language, author of "The Haskell School of Expression"
    Benoit Mandelbrot, mathematician, known for fractal geometry
    William Nordhaus (1963), economist
    Jaroslav Pelikan, historian, author of "The Christian Tradition"
    William Prusoff, pharmacologist, inventor of AIDS drug d4T, known as Zerit.
    Robert Shiller, economist, author of "Irrational Exuberance", well known for his work in investor psychology
    Jonathan Spence, historian, author of "The Search For Modern China"
    Famous on-campus tragedies
    Yale's high public profile led to three on-campus bombings. On May 1, 1970, an explosive device was detonated in the Ingalls Rink during events related to the trial of Black Panther Bobby Seale. On June 24, 1993, computer science professor David Gelernter was injured in his office on Hillhouse Avenue by a bomb sent by serial killer and Harvard graduate Ted Kaczynski, aka the Unabomber. On May 21, 2003, an explosive device went off at the Yale Law School, damaging two classrooms.

  • Yale UniversityEditor's Choice   - A leading private, independent research institution. Founded in 1701 in New Haven, Connecticut.
    --   Reference: Education: Colleges and Universities: North America: United States: Connecticut: Yale University   (43)

  • Luckenbill, Samuel - Links to his University. His music, projects, resume and travel.
    --   Society: People: College Life: Yale University   (1)

  • YaleStation - Online portal for Yale University offering campus and community information.
    --   Reference: Education: Colleges and Universities: North America: United States: Connecticut: Yale University   (43)

  • Yale University Russian Chorus - A tenor-bass a cappella choral ensemble specializing in sacred and secular Slavic choral music. Yale, Connecticut, USA.
    --   Arts: Music: Vocal: A Cappella: Bands and Artists: Collegiate: Yale University   (7)

  • Yale University Goods - Depictions of the University's physical assets and images, including scarves and ties, poetry magnets, a scholar gargoyle, Yale brick, and greeting cards. Proceeds support the University's educational mission.
    --   Shopping: Sports: College: Schools: Y: Yale University   (1)

  • Yale Law School - Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
    --   Society: Law: Education: Law Schools: United States: Connecticut: Yale University School of Law   (1)

  • Art & Architecture Building, Yale University - Contemporary color photographs of interior and exterior, with architectural information. From the Kidder Smith Images Project.
    --   Regional: North America: United States: Connecticut: Localities: N: New Haven: Arts and Entertainment: Architecture   (6)

  • Yale University Science Libraries Navigator - Links to the online catalog, general science references, and the eight science subject libraries, including forestry, engineering, chemistry, and the medical library.
    --   Reference: Libraries: Subject Specific: Science   (3)

  • Quotations: The Yale Dictionary - Project to create an searchable online database and a quotation dictionary from Yale University Press.
    --   Reference: Dictionaries   (2)

  • The Conservative Party - A philosophical debating society at Yale University. Sponsors the Sir Thomas More Lectures and Allan Bloom Forum.
    --   Society: Politics: Conservatism: Youth and Student   (4)

  • Declaration of Intent by Lords Proprietors to Settlers - Avalon Project of Yale University. The Lords Proprietors attempt at explaining the civil rights of settlers, adventurers, and planters in 1672 Province of New Jersey.
    --   Regional: North America: United States: New Jersey: Society and Culture: History: Documents   (6)

  • Yale University Pediatric Surgery - Offers full range of general and specialized pediatric surgical services, as well as support to parents of chronically ill children. Affiliated with Yale-New Haven's Children's Hospital.
    --   Health: Medicine: Surgery: Pediatric   (2)

  • Yale Daily News - Student newspaper of Yale University in New Haven. Includes course critique and cover images.
    --   News: Colleges and Universities: Newspapers: United States: Connecticut   (2)

  • Yale University Men's Golf - Bulldogs. Schedule of games, results, player roster with biographies, coaching staff, a picture gallery and directions.
    --   Sports: Golf: College and University: NCAA-I: Ivy League   (2)

  • Yale University Men's Tennis - Bulldogs. Press releases, team history, scores, game schedule, statistics and a roster.
    --   Sports: Tennis: College and University: NCAA Division I: Ivy League   (2)

  • Yale University - Artificial Intelligence Group - Information about artificial intelligence research on vision, motion, and knowledge representation.
    --   Computers: Artificial Intelligence: Academic Departments   (1)

  • YIP: Yale Italian Poetry - University journal of contemporary Italian poetry, featuring unpublished poems, poetry in translation, poetology, and reviews.
    --   Arts: Literature: Journals   (1)

  • Yale University Library - New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Specialized collections and libraries in areas including the arts, anthropology, Babylonian culture, divinity, drama, regional studies, engineering, law, music, medicine, ornithology, and statistics. Research affiliations: Association of Research Libraries, Center for Research Libraries, Research Library Group.
    --   Reference: Libraries: Research   (1)

  • Yale University Map Collection - 200 period maps and globes from 16th to 19th c., including world, continent, and city maps. Majority of maps are New World. Includes Lada-Mocarski, Cross, and Lanman map collections.
    --   Reference: Maps: Historical   (1)

  • Yale University - Map Collection - Collection descriptions and several online maps.
    --   Reference: Maps: Libraries   (1)